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What evidence is there that tutoring works? Numerous research studies provide exactly that evidence as the references below show.
“Because it gears instruction to needs, tutoring has yielded large learning effects in several dozen studies” (Cawelti, ed., 1995, p.15).
“Many tutoring programs have been developed to address the needs of children at risk, and research has shown that these programs are typically beneficial” (Rimm-Kaufman, Kagan, & Byers, 1999, p. 143).
“One-to-one instruction, provided as a supplement to classroom teaching, is generally considered to be the most effective way of increasing students’ achievement. The effectiveness of one-to-one instruction has been validated by empirical research, especially for students who are considered at risk for school failure or have been identified as having reading or learning disabilities (Bloom, 1984; Jenkins, Mayhall, Peschka, & Jenkins, 1974; Juel, 1991; Wasik & Slavin, 1993)” (cited in Elbaum, Vaughn, Hughes, & Moody, 2000, p. 605).
Adler, J. (1998, March 30). The tutor age. Newsweek, 46-56. Allsopp, D.H. (1997). Using classwide peer tutoring to teach beginning algebra problem-solving skills in heterogeneous classrooms. Remedial and Special Education, 18, 367-379.
Anderson, J.R. (1982). Acquisition of cognitive skills. Psychological Review, 89, 369-406.
Anderson, J.R. (1983). The architecture of cognition. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
Anderson, J.R. (1993). Rules of the mind. Mahwah, NJ: Erlbaum.
Arreaga-Mayer, C. (1998). Increasing active student responding and improving academic performance through classwide peer tutoring. Intervention in School and Clinic, 3, 89-94, 117.
Barbetta, P.M., Miller, A.D., Peters, M.T., Heron, T.E., & Cochran, L.L. (1991). TUGMATE: A cross-age tutoring program to teach sight vocabulary. Education and Treatment of Children, 14, 19-37.
Bar-Eli, M., Gershon, T., & Forlin, C. (1998). The tutoring process and its manifestation in the classroom behavior of tutors and tutees. British Educational Research Journal. 24(3), 283-301.
Byran, W.L. & Harter, N. (1899). Studies on the telegraphic language: The acquisition of a hierarchy of habits. Psychological Review, 6, 345-375.
Cawelti, G. (Ed.) (1995). Tutoring. Handbook of Research on Improving Student Achievement. Arlington, VA: Educational Research Service.
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Cohen, P.A., Kulik, J.A., & Kulik, C.L. (1982). Educational outcomes of tutoring: Ameta-analysis of findings. American Educational Research Journal. 19(2), 237-248.
Cooke, N.L., Heron, T.E., & Heward, W.L. (1983). Peer tutoring: implementing classwide programs in the primary grades. Columbus, OH: Special Press.
Denton, C.A. & Mathes, P.G. (2003). Intervention for struggling readers: Possibilities and challenges. In B. Foorman (Ed.), Preventing and Remediating Reading Difficulties. Baltimore, MD: York Press.
Educational Research Service (ed.). (2001). No Child Left Behind. Arlington, VA: Educational Research Service.
Ehly, S.W. (1980). Peer tutoring for individualized instruction. Boston, MA: Allyn and Bacon.
Ehri, L.C., Nunes, S.R., Stahl, S.A., & Willows, D.M. (2001). Systematic phonics instruction helps students learn to read: Evidence from the national reading panel’s meta-analysis. Review of Educational Research. 71(3), 393-447.
Elbaum, B., Vaughn, S., Hughes, M.T., & Moody, S.W. (1999). Grouping practices and reading outcomes for students with disabilities. Exceptional Children, 65, 399-415.
Elbaum, B., Vaughn, S., Hughes, M.T., & Moody, S.W. (2000). How effective are one-to-one tutoring programs in reading for elementary students at risk for reading failure? A meta-analysis of the intervention research. Journal of Educational Psychology. 92(4), 650-619.
Ezell, H.K., Kohler, R.W., & Strain, P. (1994). A program description of evaluation of academic peer tutoring for reading skills of children with special needs. Education and Treatment of Children, 17, 52-67.
Foorman, B.R. (2003). Preventing and remediating reading difficulties. Baltimore, MD: York Press.
Fuchs, L.S., Fuchs, D., Yazdian, L., & Powell, S.R. (2002). Enhancing first-grade children’s mathematical development with peer-assisted learning strategies. The School Psychology Review. 31(4), 569-583.
Fueyo, V. & Bushell, D. (1998). Using number line procedures and peer tutoring to improve the mathematics computation of low- performing first graders. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis. 31(3), 417-430.
Harper, G.F., Mallette, B., Maheady, L., Bentley, A.E., & Moore, J. (1995). Retention and treatment failure in classwide peer tutoring: Implications for further research.
Journal of Behavioral Education, 5, 399-414.
Harvey, S. (1998). Nonfiction matters: Reading, writing, and research in grades 3-8. York, ME: Stenhouse Publishers.
Harvey, S. & Goudvis, A. (2000). Strategies that work: Teaching comprehension to enhance understanding. Portland, ME: Stenhouse Publishers.
Hattie, J.A. (1992). Measuring the effects of schooling. Australian Journal of Education, 36(1), 5-13.
Heibert, E.H. (1994). Reading Recovery in the United States: What difference does it make to an age cohort? Educational Researcher, 23(9), 15-25.
Heron, T.E., Welsh, R.G., & Goddard, Y.L. (2003). Applications of tutoring systems in specialized subject areas. Remedial and Special Education, 24(5), 288-300.
Hock, M.F., Schumaker, J.B., & Deshler, D.D. (2001). The case for strategic tutoring. Educational Leadership. 58(7). 50-52
Houghton, S. & Bain, A. (1993). Peer tutoring with ESL and below-average readers. Journal of Behavioral Education, 3, 125-142.
Lou, Y., Abrami, P.C., Spence, J.C., Poulsen, C., Chambers, B., & d’Appollonia, S. (1996). Within-class grouping, “A meta-analysis. Review of Educational Research, 66, 423-458.
Lyon, G.R., Fletcher, J.M., Torgensen, J.K., Shaywitz, S.E., & Chhabra, V. (2004). preventing and remediating reading failure: A response to Allington. Educational Leadership, 61(6), 86-88.
Madden, N.A., Slavin, R.E., Karweit, N.L., Dolan, L., & Wasik, B.A. (1991). Success for All: Multi-Year Effects of a School-wide Elementary Restructuring Program. Report No. 18. Washington, D.C.: Office of Education Research and Improvement. (ERIC Document Reproduction Service No. ED 336 492).
Maheady, L., and Harper, G.R. (1987). A class-wide peer tutoring program to improve the spelling test performance of low-income, third-and-fourth grade students. Education and Treatment of Children, 10, 120-133.
Marzano, R.J., Pickering, D.J., & Pollack, J. (2001). Classroom instruction that works: Research-based strategies for increasing student achievement. Alexandria, VA: Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development.
Marzano, R.J. (2003). What works in schools: Translating research into action. Alexandria, VA: Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development.
McCarthy, p., Newby, R.F., & Recht, R.D. (1995). Results of an early intervention program for first grade children at risk for reading disability. Reading Research and Instruction, 34, 295-314.
Medway, F.J. (1991). A social psychological analysis of peer tutoring. Journal of Developmental Education. 15(1), 117-176.
Miller, A.D., Barbetta, P.M., Drevno, G.E., Marts, S.A., & Heron, T.E. (1996). Math peer tutoring for students with specific learning disabilities. Learning Disability Forum, 21(3), 21-28.
Miller, A.D., Barbetta, P., & Heron, T.E. (1994). START tutoring: Designing, training, implementing, and adapting tutoring programs for school and home settings. In R.Gardner, J.O.
Moody, S.W., Vaughn, S., & Schumm, J. S. (1997). Instructional grouping for reading: Teachers’ views. Remedial and Special Education, 18, 347-356.
National Reading Panel. (2000). Teaching children to read: An evidence-based assessment of the scientific research literature on reading and its implications for instruction. Reports of the subgroups. Washington, D.C.: National Institute of Child Health and Human Development.
National Research Council: Bransford, J.D., Brown, A.L., Cocking, R.R., Donovan, M.S., & Pellegrino, J.W. (Ed.). (2000). How people learn: Brain, mind, experience, and school. Washington, D.C.: National Academy Press.
Newell, A. & Rosenbloom, P. (1981). Mechanisms of skill acquisition and the law of practice. In J. R. Anderson (Ed.), Cognitive skills and their acquisition (pp. 1-56). Mahwah, NJ: Erlbaum.
Osguthorpe, R.T. and Scruggs, T.E. (1986). Special education students as tutors: A review and analysis. Remedial and Special Education, 7(4), 15-26.
Parker, R. & Hasbrouck, J.E. (2002). How to tutor students with reading problems. Preventing School Failure, 47(1), 42-44.
Peach, W.J., & Moore, L. (1990). Peer tutoring to increase spelling scores of the mildly mentally handicapped. Journal of Instructional Psychology, 17, 43-49.
Rimm-Kaufman, S.E., Kagan, J., & Byers, H. (1999). The effectiveness of adult volunteer tutoring on reading among “at risk” first grade children. Reading Research and Instruction. 38(2), 143-152.
Schneider, W. & Shiffrin, R.M. (1977). Controlled and automatic human information processing: I. Detection, search, and attention. Psychological Review, 84, 1-66.
Schroth, M.L. (1992). The effects of delay of feedback on a delayed concept formation task. Contemporary Educational Psychology, 17, 78-82.
Schroth, M.L. (1995). Variable delay of feedback procedures and subsequent concept formation transfer. The Journal of General Psychology, 122, 393-399.
Schroth, M.L. (1997). The effects of different training conditions on transfer in concept formation. The Journal of General Psychology, 124, 157-165.
Schroth, M.L. & Lund, E. (1993). Role of delay of feedback on subsequent pattern recognition transfer tasks. Contemporary Educational Psychology, 18, 15-22.
Shanahan, T. & Barr, R. (1995). Reading Recovery: An independent evaluation of the effects of an early instructional intervention for at-risk learners. Reading Research Quarterly, 30, 958-995.
Shiffrin, R.M. & Schneider. W. (1977). Controlled and automatic human information processing: II. Perceptual learning, automatic attending, and a general theory. Psychological Review, 84, 127-190.
Shute, R. (1992). The sensitivity of children and adults as tutors. Educational Studies. 18(1), 21-37.
Simmons, D.C., Fuchs, L.S., Fuchs, D., Mathes, P., & Hodge, J.P. (1995). Effects of explicit teaching and peer tutoring on the reading achievement of learning-disabled and low performing students in regular classrooms. The Elementary School Journal, 95, 387-408.
Snow, C.E., Burns, M.S., & Griffin, P. (Eds.) (1998). Preventing reading difficulties in young children. Washington, D.C.: National Academy Press.
Swanson, H.L. (1999). Reading research for students with LD: A meta-analysis of intervention outcomes. Journal of Learning Disabilities, 32, 504-532.
Thorndike, E.L. (1898). Animal intelligence: An experimental study of the associative processes in animals. Psychological Monographs, 2(Whole No. 8).
Torgesen, J.K. (2002). The prevention of reading difficulties. Journal of School Psychology, 40(1), 7-26.
Torgesen, J.K. (2004). Lessons learned from research on interventions for students who have difficulty learning to read. In P. McCardle & V. Chhabra (Eds.), The Voice of Evidence in Reading Research. Baltimore, MD: Brookes.
Vadasky, P.F., Jenkins, J.R., Antil, L.R., Wayne, S.K., & O’Connor, R.E. (1997). The effectiveness of one-to-one tutoring by community tutors for at-risk beginning readers. Learning Disability Quarterly. 20, 126-139.
Vadasy, P.F., Jenkins, J.R., & Pool, K. (2000). Effects of tutoring in phonological and early reading skills on students at risk for reading disabilities. Journal of Learning Disabilities, 33(6), 579-590.
Vygotsky, L.S. (1978). Mind in society. Cambridge: Harvard University Press.
Wasik, B.A. (1997). Volunteer training programs. Phi Delta Kappan. 79(4), 282-288.
Wasik, B.A., & Slavin, R.E. (1993). Preventing early reading failure with one-to-one tutoring: A review of five programs. Reading Research Quarterly, 28, 179-200.
Wright, J.E., Cavanaugh, R.A., Sainato, D.M., & Heward, W.L. (1995). Evaluation of a classwide peer tutoring program in a modified Spanish class for secondary students identified as learning disabled or academically at-risk. Education and Treatment of Children, 18, 33-52.
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