Tutoring Research

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What evidence is there that tutoring works? Numerous research studies provide exactly that evidence as the references below show.

“Because it gears instruction to needs, tutoring has yielded large learning effects in several dozen studies” (Cawelti, ed., 1995, p.15).

“Many tutoring programs have been developed to address the needs of children at risk, and research has shown that these programs are typically beneficial” (Rimm-Kaufman, Kagan, & Byers, 1999, p. 143).

“One-to-one instruction, provided as a supplement to classroom teaching, is generally considered to be the most effective way of increasing students’ achievement. The effectiveness of one-to-one instruction has been validated by empirical research, especially for students who are considered at risk for school failure or have been identified as having reading or learning disabilities (Bloom, 1984; Jenkins, Mayhall, Peschka, & Jenkins, 1974; Juel, 1991; Wasik & Slavin, 1993)” (cited in Elbaum, Vaughn, Hughes, & Moody, 2000, p. 605).

Adler, J. (1998, March 30). The tutor age. Newsweek, 46-56. Allsopp, D.H. (1997). Using classwide peer tutoring to teach beginning algebra problem-solving skills in heterogeneous classrooms. Remedial and Special Education, 18, 367-379.
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Arreaga-Mayer, C. (1998). Increasing active student responding and improving academic performance through classwide peer tutoring. Intervention in School and Clinic, 3, 89-94, 117.
Barbetta, P.M., Miller, A.D., Peters, M.T., Heron, T.E., & Cochran, L.L. (1991). TUGMATE: A cross-age tutoring program to teach sight vocabulary. Education and Treatment of Children, 14, 19-37.
Bar-Eli, M., Gershon, T., & Forlin, C. (1998). The tutoring process and its manifestation in the classroom behavior of tutors and tutees. British Educational Research Journal. 24(3), 283-301.
Byran, W.L. & Harter, N. (1899). Studies on the telegraphic language: The acquisition of a hierarchy of habits. Psychological Review, 6, 345-375.
Cawelti, G. (Ed.) (1995). Tutoring. Handbook of Research on Improving Student Achievement. Arlington, VA: Educational Research Service.
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Cohen, P.A., Kulik, J.A., & Kulik, C.L. (1982). Educational outcomes of tutoring: Ameta-analysis of findings. American Educational Research Journal. 19(2), 237-248.
Cooke, N.L., Heron, T.E., & Heward, W.L. (1983). Peer tutoring: implementing classwide programs in the primary grades. Columbus, OH: Special Press.
Denton, C.A. & Mathes, P.G. (2003). Intervention for struggling readers: Possibilities and challenges. In B. Foorman (Ed.), Preventing and Remediating Reading Difficulties. Baltimore, MD: York Press.
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Ehly, S.W. (1980). Peer tutoring for individualized instruction. Boston, MA: Allyn and Bacon.
Ehri, L.C., Nunes, S.R., Stahl, S.A., & Willows, D.M. (2001). Systematic phonics instruction helps students learn to read: Evidence from the national reading panel’s meta-analysis. Review of Educational Research. 71(3), 393-447.
Elbaum, B., Vaughn, S., Hughes, M.T., & Moody, S.W. (1999). Grouping practices and reading outcomes for students with disabilities. Exceptional Children, 65, 399-415.
Elbaum, B., Vaughn, S., Hughes, M.T., & Moody, S.W. (2000). How effective are one-to-one tutoring programs in reading for elementary students at risk for reading failure? A meta-analysis of the intervention research. Journal of Educational Psychology. 92(4), 650-619.
Ezell, H.K., Kohler, R.W., & Strain, P. (1994). A program description of evaluation of academic peer tutoring for reading skills of children with special needs. Education and Treatment of Children, 17, 52-67.
Foorman, B.R. (2003). Preventing and remediating reading difficulties. Baltimore, MD: York Press.
Fuchs, L.S., Fuchs, D., Yazdian, L., & Powell, S.R. (2002). Enhancing first-grade children’s mathematical development with peer-assisted learning strategies. The School Psychology Review. 31(4), 569-583.
Fueyo, V. & Bushell, D. (1998). Using number line procedures and peer tutoring to improve the mathematics computation of low- performing first graders. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis. 31(3), 417-430.
Harper, G.F., Mallette, B., Maheady, L., Bentley, A.E., & Moore, J. (1995). Retention and treatment failure in classwide peer tutoring: Implications for further research.
Journal of Behavioral Education, 5, 399-414.
Harvey, S. (1998). Nonfiction matters: Reading, writing, and research in grades 3-8. York, ME: Stenhouse Publishers.
Harvey, S. & Goudvis, A. (2000). Strategies that work: Teaching comprehension to enhance understanding. Portland, ME: Stenhouse Publishers.
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Heibert, E.H. (1994). Reading Recovery in the United States: What difference does it make to an age cohort? Educational Researcher, 23(9), 15-25.
Heron, T.E., Welsh, R.G., & Goddard, Y.L. (2003). Applications of tutoring systems in specialized subject areas. Remedial and Special Education, 24(5), 288-300.
Hock, M.F., Schumaker, J.B., & Deshler, D.D. (2001). The case for strategic tutoring. Educational Leadership. 58(7). 50-52
Houghton, S. & Bain, A. (1993). Peer tutoring with ESL and below-average readers. Journal of Behavioral Education, 3, 125-142.
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Maheady, L., and Harper, G.R. (1987). A class-wide peer tutoring program to improve the spelling test performance of low-income, third-and-fourth grade students. Education and Treatment of Children, 10, 120-133.
Marzano, R.J., Pickering, D.J., & Pollack, J. (2001). Classroom instruction that works: Research-based strategies for increasing student achievement. Alexandria, VA: Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development.
Marzano, R.J. (2003). What works in schools: Translating research into action. Alexandria, VA: Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development.
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Medway, F.J. (1991). A social psychological analysis of peer tutoring. Journal of Developmental Education. 15(1), 117-176.
Miller, A.D., Barbetta, P.M., Drevno, G.E., Marts, S.A., & Heron, T.E. (1996). Math peer tutoring for students with specific learning disabilities. Learning Disability Forum, 21(3), 21-28.
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